Furnariidae – Ovenbirds

Their name comes from the intricate, somewhat "oven-like" clay nests constructed by the horneros

A diverse group of small to medium-sized passerine birds predominantly found in the Neotropics. Their range extends from southern Mexico through Central America to South America, reaching as far south as Tierra del Fuego. These birds inhabit a wide variety of environments, including tropical rainforests, subtropical woodlands, montane forests, savannas, and even semi-arid scrublands.

Ovenbirds exhibit considerable diversity in size and appearance. Despite this variation, they share some common features. Many have drab, earth-toned plumage, which provides effective camouflage in their forest and woodland habitats. Their coloration typically includes shades of brown, gray, and rufous, often with streaks or spots. This cryptic coloring helps them blend into the bark, leaves, and undergrowth. They possess strong legs and feet adapted for climbing and perching, and their bills vary widely in shape and size, reflecting their diverse feeding strategies.

Many species are also known for their intricate vocalizations, which they use to establish territories and attract mates. Their songs and calls can be complex and vary greatly between species. In terms of locomotion, woodcreepers have developed specialized tail feathers that provide support as they climb vertical surfaces while ground-dwelling species have strong legs adapted for walking and digging. These birds are often solitary or found in pairs, although some species may join mixed-species foraging flocks, which can provide protection and increased foraging efficiency.