Plethodontidae – Lungless salamanders

Largest family of salamanders, 216 of which are Threatened as of 2020. 2 species are extinct (years 1964, 2019)

This diverse group of salamanders in the Americas is called “lungless” because they breathe through their skin and mouth lining rather than through lungs like most other amphibians. Plethodontid salamanders are characterized by their slender bodies, long tails, and sticky toes, which help them climb trees and other vertical surfaces.

They are also known for their elaborate courtship rituals and complex social behavior. Many species in this family are small, with a total length of less than 15 cm (6 in), but some can grow up to 30 cm (12 in). They are found in many habitats, including forests, grasslands, and streams.