Pleuronectiformes – Flatfish

Asymmetric fish, with both eyes lying on the same side of the head

Flatfish, encompassing species such as flounders, halibuts, and sole, are remarkable creatures known for their unique characteristics and significant ecological roles. One of their most fascinating attributes is their astounding metamorphosis during development, which enables them to lead a life lying on the ocean floor.

As juveniles, flatfish begin with a symmetrical body, sporting an eye on each side of their head. However, as they mature, a remarkable transformation occurs. One of their eyes migrates to the opposite side, resulting in a flattened appearance with both eyes positioned on the same side of the head. This adaptation allows flatfish to rest on the ocean floor, where they expertly blend with the substrate. Their exceptional camouflage skills make them nearly invisible to potential prey and predators alike, showcasing the ingenuity of nature’s design.

Flatfish exhibit a global presence, populating oceans worldwide and inhabiting diverse marine environments. From shallow coastal waters to the mysterious depths of the deep sea, they demonstrate their adaptability and resilience. Their distribution spans temperate and tropical regions, highlighting their ability to thrive in various climates. Moreover, different species exhibit specific substrate preferences, some favoring sandy bottoms, others thriving in muddy habitats, and some seeking shelter in rocky areas.

Beyond their distinctive characteristics and remarkable adaptations, flatfish hold significant ecological value within marine ecosystems. They are vital components of food webs, occupying various trophic levels. As predators, they help control prey populations, contributing to the balance of their habitats. Additionally, they serve as prey for larger predators, forming essential links in the intricate marine food chains.

Moreover, flatfish have economic importance in fisheries worldwide, providing a valuable source of protein for human consumption. Their flavor and nutritional value make them sought-after catches in many culinary traditions.