American bullfrog

Introduced to many regions where it is now considered an invasive species

Will Brown

A large, robust frog native to eastern North America. They have a powerful, stocky build with large, muscular legs ideal for leaping and swimming. Their skin is usually green or olive-colored, with darker bands on their limbs and greyish-white underbellies. Preferring warm, still waters, these frogs thrive in ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams where vegetation is abundant. They are aquatic hunters, lying in wait for just about any creature they can overpower and swallow whole, including insects, small mammals, birds, and other amphibians. American Bullfrogs are known for their opportunistic eating habits and will consume almost anything that fits into their mouths.

American Bullfrogs are mostly nocturnal, becoming most active at night when they hunt and mate. Their call, a deep and loud “jug-o-rum”, is unmistakable and can be heard from far away, serving both to attract females and to ward off rival males. Males are territorial during the breeding season and will aggressively defend their patch of water.

While the American Bullfrog is not threatened in its native range, its introduction into non-native areas has caused ecological disturbances. As voracious predators and competitors, they often outcompete and prey on local species, disrupting natural ecosystems. Their resilience and adaptability make them a difficult invasive species to control. In some regions, they are harvested for their legs, which are considered a delicacy in many cuisines around the world. They are also popular in the pet trade and are used extensively in scientific research due to their large size and relatively simple care requirements.

Distribution

Country
Population est.
Status
Year
Comments
Argentina
2020
Introduced
Belgium
2020
Introduced
Brazil
2020
Introduced
Canada
2020
China
2020
Introduced
Colombia
2020
Introduced
Costa Rica
EX
Extinct locally, Introduced
Cuba
2020
Introduced
Dominican Republic
2020
Introduced
Ecuador
2020
Introduced
France
2020
Introduced
Germany
2020
Introduced
Greece
2020
Introduced: Kriti
Indonesia
2020
Introduced
Italy
2020
Introduced
Jamaica
2020
Introduced
Japan
2020
Introduced
Malaysia
2020
Introduced
Mexico
2020
Introduced
Netherlands
2020
Introduced
Peru
2020
Introduced
Philippines
2020
Introduced
Puerto Rico
2020
Introduced
Singapore
2020
Introduced
Spain
2020
Introduced
Taiwan
2020
Introduced
Thailand
2020
Introduced
United Kingdom
2020
Introduced
United States
2020
Introduced: Hawaiian Is.
Uruguay
2020
Introduced
Venezuela
2020
Introduced

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Terrestrial / Aquatic

Altricial / Precocial

Polygamous / Monogamous

Dimorphic (size) / Monomorphic

Active: Diurnal / Nocturnal

Social behavior: Solitary / Pack / Herd

Diet: Carnivore / Herbivore / Omnivore / Piscivorous / Insectivore

Migratory: Yes / No

Domesticated: Yes / No

Dangerous: Yes / No