Bornean flat-headed frog

This squishy-looking creature is the only lungless species of frog in the world

Native to the island of Borneo, it can only be found in a limited area of its habitat, primarily in streams. What sets this frog apart from its relatives is its unique respiratory system—it is the only known lungless frog in the world. Instead of relying on lungs for respiration like most amphibians, the Bornean flat-headed frog breathes solely through its skin, a remarkable adaptation to its aquatic lifestyle.

Endangered due to habitat destruction and illegal gold mining activities in its limited range, the Bornean flat-headed frog faces numerous threats to its survival. River siltation and pollution resulting from illegal mining operations pose significant risks to the frog’s habitat, further exacerbating its conservation status.

Despite these challenges, the Bornean flat-headed frog exhibits fascinating behavioral and morphological adaptations that contribute to its survival in its aquatic environment. Like salamanders, this frog is capable of plunging to the bottom of rivers without the need for lungs. Its flattened body shape allows it to conceal itself among rocks and navigate through the fast-flowing currents of its stream habitat with ease. This flattened form may have evolved as an adaptation to its unique way of life, enabling the frog to better maneuver and camouflage itself within its rocky surroundings.

Distribution

Country
Population est.
Status
Year
Comments
Indonesia
EN
2017
Kalimantan

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Terrestrial / Aquatic

Altricial / Precocial

Polygamous / Monogamous

Dimorphic (size)/ Monomorphic

Active: Diurnal / Nocturnal

Social behavior: Solitary / Pack / Herd

Diet: Carnivore / Herbivore / Omnivore / Piscivorous / Insectivore

Migratory: Yes / No

Domesticated: Yes / No

Dangerous: Yes / No