European green toad

An unusual amphibian that can survive high temperatures and is even quite tolerant to desiccation

Svklimkin

The European green toad is a remarkable amphibian species known for its exceptional heat tolerance and resistance to desiccation. Found across a wide range of semi-desert and mountainous regions, spanning from France and Denmark to western Russia and the Balkans.

These toads have the remarkable ability to endure temperatures as high as 40°C (104°F). This heat resistance is a crucial adaptation that allows them to thrive in the scorching heat of their arid and semi-desert habitats. Unlike many other amphibians that are sensitive to extreme temperatures, the European green toad can remain active and survive in conditions that would be lethal to most of their amphibious relatives.

Furthermore, these toads exhibit a fascinating ability to tolerate desiccation, which sets them apart from the conventional notion of amphibians that require consistently moist environments. While most amphibians rely on damp skin for respiration and are highly sensitive to dehydration, the European green toad can withstand significant water loss. In fact, they can survive even when their bodies lose nearly 50% of their water content. This remarkable adaptation allows them to endure extended periods of aridity in their habitats.

During the breeding season, European green toads make their way to water bodies to reproduce, as is typical for amphibians. However, for the majority of the year, they spend their time hidden underground in burrows and crevices to escape the harsh climatic conditions of their natural range. These underground shelters provide them with protection from extreme temperatures and help conserve moisture, enabling them to thrive in their challenging semi-desert and mountainous environments.

Distribution

Country
Population est.
Status
Year
Comments
Albania
2008
Austria
2008
Belarus
2008
Bosnia And Herz.
2008
Bulgaria
2008
Croatia
2008
Czechia
2008
Denmark
2008
Presence Uncertain
Estonia
2008
France
2008
Germany
2008
Greece
2008
Hungary
2008
Israel
2008
Italy
2008
Kazakhstan
2008
Latvia
2008
Lithuania
2008
Malta
2008
Moldova
2008
Montenegro
2008
North Macedonia
2008
Poland
2008
Romania
2008
Russia
2008
Serbia
2008
Slovakia
2008
Slovenia
2008
Spain
2008
Introduced: Baleares
Sweden
2008
Presence Uncertain
Switzerland
0
Official estimate
EX
2008
Extinct locally
Ukraine
2008

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Terrestrial / Aquatic

Altricial / Precocial

Polygamous / Monogamous

Dimorphic (size) / Monomorphic

Active: Diurnal / Nocturnal

Social behavior: Solitary / Pack / Herd

Diet: Carnivore / Herbivore / Omnivore / Piscivorous / Insectivore

Migratory: Yes / No

Domesticated: Yes / No

Dangerous: Yes / No